Common Names: noni, morinda, Indian mulberry, hog apple, canary wood
This fact sheet provides basic information about noni—common names, what the science says, potential side effects and cautions, and resources for more information.
Noni is an evergreen shrub or small tree that grows throughout the tropical regions of the Pacific Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Australia. Noni has a history of use as a topical preparation for joint pain and skin conditions. Today, noni fruit juice has folk uses as a general health tonic and for cancer and chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
The noni fruit is most commonly combined with other fruits (such as grape) to make juice. Preparations of the fruit and leaves are also available in capsules, tablets, and teas.
What the Science Says
- In laboratory research, noni has shown antioxidant, immune-stimulating, and tumor-fighting properties. These results suggest that noni may warrant further study for conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, noni has not been well studied in people for any health condition.
- NCCIH-funded research includes a study on noni for cancer to determine its safety and potential effects on tumors and symptoms, as well as a laboratory study of noni’s effects on prostate cancer cells. The National Cancer Institute is funding preliminary research on noni for breast cancer prevention and treatment.
Side Effects and Cautions
- Noni is high in potassium. People who are on potassium-restricted diets because of kidney problems should avoid using noni.
- Several noni juice manufacturers have received warnings from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration about making unsupported health claims.
- Few side effects from noni have been reported, but its safety has not been adequately studied.
- There have been reports of liver damage from using noni. It should be avoided if you have liver disease because it contains compounds that may make your disease worse.
- Tell all your health care providers about any complementary health approaches you use. Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. This will help ensure coordinated and safe care.
For More Information
The NCCIH Clearinghouse provides information on NCCIH and complementary and integrative health approaches, including publications and searches of Federal databases of scientific and medical literature. The Clearinghouse does not provide medical advice, treatment recommendations, or referrals to practitioners.
A service of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), PubMed® contains publication information and (in most cases) brief summaries of articles from scientific and medical journals. For guidance from NCCIH on using PubMed, see How To Find Information About Complementary Health Approaches on PubMed
Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), National Institutes of Health (NIH)
ODS seeks to strengthen knowledge and understanding of dietary supplements by evaluating scientific information, supporting research, sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know), fact sheets on a variety of specific supplement ingredients and products (such as vitamin D and multivitamin/mineral supplements), and the PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset.
NIH National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus
- Morinda. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on August 5, 2009.
- Mueller BA, Scott MK, Sowinski KM, et al. Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia): hidden potential for hyperkalemia? American Journal of Kidney Disease. 2000;35(2):310–312.
- Noni (Morinda citrifolia). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on August 4, 2009.
- Pawlus A, Bao-Ning S, Kinghorn A. Noni (Morinda citrifolia). In: Coates P, Blackman M, Cragg G, et al., eds. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2005:1–8.
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